Last year I wrote a manifesto for “an interactive digital humanities project” for a conference at Durham University called Beyond Crisis: Visions for the New Humanities. The fourth point in the ten point manifesto was:
“Bring life to the archive. Archives when used in collaboration with social media can help build a collectively authored anthology of content that takes the conversation in new and often unexpected directions.”
Dawn of the Unread has helped bring to life some wonderful archives over the past 16 months, such as: the Feminist Library at the Nottingham Women’s Centre, the Ray Gosling Archives, the Manuscripts and Special Collections Department at University of Nottingham, The Sparrow’s Nest Anarchist Library and Digital Cavendish, an academic project in the USA.
Our final issue ‘Powe versus Africanus’ pays particular attention to race and is written by Panya Banjoko, one of the founding members of the Nottingham Black Archive. NBA was created in 2010 and, as the title suggests, aims to research, collect and preserve Black history, heritage and culture in Nottingham, from the earliest time to the present day. It has in its collection some of the earliest documents relating to the formation of black community organisations in Nottingham, including the ACNA Centre’s constitution, 14 full transcripts from the first generation of Caribbean elders to reside in Nottingham, photographs, articles, newsletters and political letters dating back to the 1960s. More recently it has added videos after employing local documentary maker Ioney Smallhorne.
Panya felt that BME identities were under represented in local museums and conducted some research into Attitudes and Perceptions of the African Caribbean Community at Nottingham Castle Museum in 2008. This revealed that African Caribbean people did not feel as though their history or culture was being represented in Nottingham’s Museums. One comment in her research was particularly revealing: ‘It seems that the only black history contained in museums is about slavery, and that’s not all of black history…I just don’t feel like they showcase some of the good in my history apart from that one big problem’.
To counteract this the NBA has ran a series of community engagement projects. Of particular interest is The Common Land which explores the development of the St. Ann’s estate through the eyes of residents during the 1960s and 1970s. In total they recorded and filmed 19 oral histories, including Merlita Bryan, who would become Nottingham’s first female Black Sheriff. The recordings were then dramatised by Mufaro Makubika and performed at the Nottingham Playhouse during October 2012 at a sharing event.
The first generation of Afro-Caribbean settlers in postwar St. Ann’s would have experienced a wide range of prejudices, many of which led to the 1958 Race Riots. Journalist Norma Gregory has pointed out in her book Jamaicans in Nottingham that one common prejudice (after we had progressed from No Blacks. No Dogs. No Irish) was the belief that Black people would bring down the value of housing in an area. Mortgages were also difficult for Black people to obtain due to an institutional prejudice that argued they were unlikely to live for the duration of the 25 year repayment plan and so were a poor investment.
But just as the person in Panya’s research was frustrated at Black culture being only known through a narrative of slavery, so too St. Ann’s has become a byword for poverty and destitution. This is largely due to the Race Riots, a 1969 Gimme Shelter documentary into ‘slums’ (see above video), Ken Coates Poverty: The Forgotten Englishman and more recently Lisa McKenzie’s Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain.
This is something that particularly annoys Colin Haynes, who I work with at the Ray Gosling Archives. Colin was an activist in the 1970s and wishes more was said about the positive contribution of locals such as the work of Satra (St Ann’s Tenants and Residents Association) or the Chase Times newsletter which was written by local people and encouraged activism and skill sharing. Referring to Ken Coates book, Ray Gosling once told me, with a smirk, “I think people made a lot of money about books on poverty in those days.”
Nottingham Black Archive have gone some way to altering the parameters informing dialogue about race and community which is why their inclusion was so vital in our final issue. Elsewhere they are helping to give meaning to archives by bringing them directly out into the public, such as through their Community Capsule, a box containing books, children’s toys , war time cookery book, registration and identity cards, costumes, photographs and activities for children to make all relating to World War Two.
Perhaps the most shocking artefact in this collection is the Golly Flying a Lancaster Bomber. The Golliwog originated as a character in Florence Kate Upton and Bertha Upton’s 1895 book The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls but has largely been deemed an offensive racist symbol. Although it is offensive to modern sensibilities it is a symbol that is a reminder of past attitudes and how with hard work and education, these attitudes can be changed.
I knew nothing about the Nottingham Black Archive until Dawn of the Unread and I hope that we’ve gone some way to raising awareness about an important institution that’s been created from below rather than from above. There’s still a lot of work to be done, in particular their website needs updating and more content should be digitised, but this is where you, dear reader, can step in and offer your support.
Powe Versus Africanus, the last issue in the Dawn of the Unread serial can be read here.
Dawn of the Unread is a graphic novel celebrating Nottingham’s literary history. It was created to support libraries and bookshops. It began life online and won the Teaching Excellence Award at the Guardian Education Awards in 2015 and has since been published by Spokesman Books (2017). All profits go towards UNESCO Nottingham City of Literature.
- Black to Basic: Panya Banjoko on NBA (dawnoftheunread.com)
- Common Land Project (nottinghamblackarchive.org)
- Community Capsule (nottinghamblackarchive.wordpress.com)
- Dig for History (stannsallotments.wordpress.com)
- Bygones: Slum Clearance (nottinghampost.com)
- Black History Month: George Africanus (blogs.nottingham.ac.uk)